Conventions Used in the Analyses

Notes are enclosed with singe quotation mark to differentiate between a note vs. an article; ‘A’ major triad on…, vs. ‘A major triad is …’ Accidentals are usually spelled out; ‘A-flat’, ‘B-natural’, ‘C-sharp’, etc. Chord functons are indicated with Roman numerals in Times Roman, 12pt; ‘VI, bII, V’, etc. …below the bass staff.

The key the work is in is located above the treble staff and in Times Roman 14pt bold ‘I’ ‘VI’, etc. Modulations are also indicated in Times Roman 12pt bold, ‘III’, ‘bVI’ etc. When a key is described it is done with the word starting in a capital letter, ‘The key of the Tonic’ (I), ‘The key of the Super-Tonic’ (II), etc., in Times Roman 14pt, not in bold.

Lower case for minor ‘ii’ ‘iii’, etc. are never be used as they appear to be an alteration from the norm. ‘II’ and ‘III’ are minor. They are normal in a major key and need no special indication to show them as minor. In any case, vii is not minor. Elements of theoretical indications must be kept separate to avoid any possibility of confusion; ‘ii’ combines function with quality, ‘V7’ combines function with figured bass and is erroneously regarded as a symbol of a harmonic identity

A super-tonic triad in a minor key is a normal diminished triad and is functionable (II). A diminished-seventh chord is not functionable under any circumstance. It is considered a dominant with a missing root (sans root), and will be indicated with a ‘o’ in front of the x; ‘oxm9’ and ‘m9’ the fourth note. Thus, a ‘B-diminished’ seventh chord will be indicated with ‘G’ as the missing root; G-B-D-F-Ab.

A distinction must be made between ‘function’ and ‘identity’. Dominant function (V) is not to be confused with dominant identity (x). ‘V’ is only a function and may be minor, major, or dominant identity. Chord identity indications are placed between the staves, chord functions below, and modulations in Roman numerals above the staves. Figured bass is not included here as its use is limited. Instead, include the function (number) of the chord that is the lower-most note; ‘3’, where ‘3’ indicates that the third is the lower-most note of the chord, ‘7’ where ‘7’ is the lower-most note, etc., instead of a ‘figured bass’ symbol where ‘6’ indicates the first inversion with the 3rd the lower-most note, or ‘2’, the third inversion where the 7th is the lower-most note. Figured bass is simply not a useful tool, functional symbols are.